Anterior and Posterior Knee Joint Anatomy: Medical Illustration Line Work

All of the floral ink illustrations that I have been posting on my Instagram have been inspiring me to revisit some line work that I have done in the past. I revisited the medical illustration shown below. It depicts the anterior and posterior view of the knee joint.

This is the initial pencil sketch. I tried to problem-solve the transition from pencil illustration to line art here. Looking back, I am happy with some of the solutions but not all of them.

Pencil sketch of the anterior and posterior view of the knee joint


Here is the resultant line illustration that came from that sketch.
Digital line illustration of the knee joint


Upon revisiting this, my goal was to simplify the line work. I wanted to get rid of the busy, angular and harsh areas. Below is the simplified version.

Digital line illustration of the knee joint

This revision looks a lot cleaner and less cluttered. I tweaked the leader lines and spacing between the text as well. Here is a detail shot of the line work.

Posterior knee joint

I like the organic nature of the lines here. They are not as harsh and angular. Some of them were delightfully spontaneous!

Next up, I am going to take some sketches of a hand that I did and convert them into line art using Adobe Photoshop. Thanks for looking! Check back next Tuesday for another post!

How Mechanical Loading Stimulates Bone Remodeling – A Medical Illustration

Hello! I am following up on an earlier post that I made showing the color compositions of an illustration in progress. I had revisited my graduate school research project and created a new illustration. The goal here was to show how mechanically loading bone can stimulate changes in the actual bone structure. The final image is below!

Mechanical loading and the Stimulation of bone remodeling

I entered this poster into the AMI 2017 Salon this year. Here is the “Intended of Purpose” statement that I submitted it with.

“Bone-building exercises place mechanical loads and forces on the bones. The sensation of these forces, in turn, stimulates micro-architectural changes in the bone. These changes can strengthen and refresh the bone, making it more capable of handling future forces. This illustration depicts the fluid-filled canalicular network in which mechanical forces are sensed and responded to. It also shows the connection between a macro-level activity and the resultant micro-level changes.”

As a side note, I find that runners are often depicted as fit 20-somethings. For my poster, I chose an older man because my research was also about osteoporosis prevention. Bone health is a lifelong endeavor and there are steps that we can take throughout all stages of life to strengthen our bones for the future.

Lastly, I am updating this site little by little and will start publishing weekly on here. I hope you enjoyed the illustration. Have a great day!


Vision Loss Associated With Glaucoma

I interned as a medical illustrator for the Journal of the American Medical Association this past spring. I created three illustrations for publication under the tutelage of Senior Medical Illustrators Cassio Lynm and Alison Burke and Senior Editor Dr. Ronna Henry. The experience was unforgettably instructive and I have the incredible mentors at JAMA to thank for that. Once the other two illustrations are published, I can and will post them here. All images are copyrighted to the American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


The image above shows how pressure in the eye can lead to blindness or compromised vision. A simple analogy would be to think of  a colander or sieve at the back of your eye. The optic nerve that comes out of the back of an eye looks like a bundle of spaghetti and passes through this colander.

(This image is credited to WebMD. I did not illustrate it and it has no affiliation with JAMA. Clicking on it will take you to the associated article.)h9991278_001

From there the “spaghetti bundle” keeps going all the way to your brain. The colander that it passed through has fluid sitting atop of it and if that fluid gets pressed down hard enough (increased pressure in the eye), it causes the colander to break down. The spaghetti that is threaded through the colander gets all jammed and broken up as well. That jammed up spaghetti can no longer properly send information to your brain. For some technical jargon, read on.

Intraocular pressure (IOP) can lead to an increased mechanical pressure on the posterior structures of the eye. This pressure can be caused by diminished fluid flow through the trabecular meshwork of the eye. This pressure can lead to a deformation in the lamina cribrosa. The lamina cribrosa is a sieve-like structure through which retinal ganglion cells of the eye pass through before becoming myelinated and forming the optic nerve. Damage to the l.cribrosa causes damage to the axons which in turn causes damage to vision.

The proof page of the published article is below.



“A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within. More than the luster of the firmament of bards and sages.

Yet he dismisses, without notice, his thought, because it is his. In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts; they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty.”

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Skull and nerve drawings revisited.

In an earlier post I showed the progress of the skull sketch below and the overlaying of nerves atop of it. Here, I have revisited the sketches and increased the visibility of the nerves. I included the original sketches for comparison.

“I stuck my head out the window this morning and spring kissed me bang in the face – Langston Hughes

Digital heart painting progress

The goal here: try to paint in a different style that I really enjoy. I studied Bonnie Hofkin’s artwork and this is the result. This piece is aimed to attract moreso than to instruct.


“The four stages of mastery are:
unconscious incompetence
conscious incompetence
conscious competence
unconscious competence”
-Noel Burch

Speed post!

Here is an update of the heart that I am working on. I have not added any pathologies yet. I am liking this new, loose style. This drawing is in the likeness of an illustration by Frank Netter.



“Let yourself be drawn by the strange pull of what you love. It will not lead you astray.”  – Rumi